October 1, 2016

Thank you so much to those of you who joined me for Liver Lovin' at the AHG Symposium this year! Since I didn't have my act together to prepare the slides in time for the proceedings, I promised I would share them here. 


Here is a link in case that's easier to view. 

Additional Resources​

  • Here is a blog post from my Physiology for Hippies page about the differences between AST/ALT and CYP450 enzymes. 
  • Here is another post - including a short video - about conjugated bilirubin. 


Avau, B., Rotondo, A., Thijs, T., Andrews, C. N., Janssen, P., Tack, J., & Depoortere, I. (2015). Targeting extra-oral bitter taste receptors modulates gastrointestinal motility with effects on satiation. Scientific Reports, 5. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep15985

bitters.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.herbcraft.org/bitters.pdf

Chassaing, B., Etienne-Mesmin, L., & Gewirtz, A. T. (2014). Microbiota-liver axis in hepatic disease. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 59(1), 328–339. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.26494

Ferrell, J. M., & Chiang, J. Y. L. (2015). Circadian rhythms in liver metabolism and disease. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B, 5(2), 113–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2015.01.003

Finger, T. E., & Kinnamon, S. C. (2011). Taste isn’t just for taste buds anymore. F1000 Biology Reports, 3. https://doi.org/10.3410/B3-20

Harada, K., & Nakanuma, Y. (2010). Biliary innate immunity: function and modulation. Mediators of Inflammation, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/373878

Hodges, R. E., & Minich, D. M. (2015). Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/760689

Keum, Y.-S. (2012). Regulation of Nrf2-Mediated Phase II Detoxification and Anti-oxidant Genes. Biomolecules & Therapeutics, 20(2), 144–151. https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2012.20.2.144

Kliewer, S. A., & Mangelsdorf, D. J. (2015). Bile Acids as Hormones: The FXR-FGF15/19 Pathway. Digestive Diseases (Basel, Switzerland), 33(3), 327–331. https://doi.org/10.1159/000371670

Krueger, P. D., Lassen, M. G., Qiao, H., & Hahn, Y. S. (2011). Regulation of NK cell repertoire and function in the liver. Critical Reviews in Immunology, 31(1), 43–52.

Lee, J. H., Khor, T. O., Shu, L., Su, Z.-Y., Fuentes, F., & Kong, A.-N. T. (2013). Dietary phytochemicals and cancer prevention: Nrf2 signaling, epigenetics, and cell death mechanisms in blocking cancer initiation and progression. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 137(2), 153–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2012.09.008

Loper, H. B., La Sala, M., Dotson, C., & Steinle, N. (2015). Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake. Nutrition Reviews, 73(2), 83–91. https://doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuu009

Maher, J. J. (1997). Exploring alcohol’s effects on liver function. Alcohol Health and Research World, 21(1), 5–12.

Marin, J. J. G. (2012). Plasma Membrane Transporters in Modern Liver Pharmacology. Scientifica, 2012. https://doi.org/10.6064/2012/428139

McMullen, M. K., Whitehouse, J. M., & Towell, A. (2015). Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/670504

Mennella, J. A., Spector, A. C., Reed, D. R., & Coldwell, S. E. (2013). The Bad Taste of Medicines: Overview of Basic Research on Bitter Taste. Clinical Therapeutics, 35(8), 1225–1246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.06.007

Montagner, A., Polizzi, A., Fouché, E., Ducheix, S., Lippi, Y., Lasserre, F., … Guillou, H. (2016). Liver PPARα is crucial for whole-body fatty acid homeostasis and is protective against NAFLD. Gut, 65(7), 1202–1214. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2015-310798

Mouzaki, M., Wang, A. Y., Bandsma, R., Comelli, E. M., Arendt, B. M., Zhang, L., … Allard, J. P. (2016). Bile Acids and Dysbiosis in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. PloS One, 11(5), e0151829. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151829

Pydi, S. P., Jafurulla, M., Wai, L., Bhullar, R. P., Chelikani, P., & Chattopadhyay, A. (2016). Cholesterol modulates bitter taste receptor function. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta, 1858(9), 2081–2087. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2016.06.005

Scott, C. L., Zheng, F., De Baetselier, P., Martens, L., Saeys, Y., De Prijck, S., … Guilliams, M. (2016). Bone marrow-derived monocytes give rise to self-renewing and fully differentiated Kupffer cells. Nature Communications, 7, 10321. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10321

Sternini, C. (2007). Taste Receptors in the Gastrointestinal Tract. IV. Functional implications of bitter taste receptors in gastrointestinal chemosensing. American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 292(2), G457–G461. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00411.2006

Sutor, D. J., & Wilkie, L. I. (1976). Diurnal variations in the pH of pathological gallbladder bile. Gut, 17(12), 971–974.

Vallim, T. Q. de A., & Edwards, P. A. (2009). Bile Acids Have the Gall to Function as Hormones. Cell Metabolism, 10(3), 162–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2009.08.005

Wooding, S. (2005). Evolution: A Study in Bad Taste? Current Biology, 15(19), R805–R807. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2005.09.021

Zakhari, S. (n.d.). Overview: How is alcohol metabolized by the body? Retrieved July 21, 2016, from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh294/245-255.htm

Zhou, D., Wang, Y., Chen, L., Jia, L., Yuan, J., Sun, M., … Luan, J. (2016). Evolving roles of circadian rhythms in liver homeostasis and pathology. Oncotarget, 7(8), 8625–8639. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.7065


About Camille Freeman, LDN, RH (she/her)

Hi there! I'm a clinical herbalist and licensed nutritionist specializing in fertility and menstrual health. I run the Monday Mentoring community of practice and also offer continuing education programs for highly-trained herbalists and nutritionists (Check out this year's Deep Dive!). I'm also a professor in the Department of Nutrition at the Maryland University of Integrative Health, where I teach physiology, pathophysiology, and mindful eating.

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